What Are the Different Disciplines in the Social Sciences?

The social sciences cover a broad array of disciplines, all of which focus on the human experience, society, and the way that we shape our world. Social scientists research different areas of human life, including the past and present status of our species, in hopes of achieving a greater understanding of the trajectory of our collective future.

Because of the sheer magnitude of this field of study, the social sciences are often poorly understood. Most of us are unaware of the fact that social scientists influence our perceived experiences, improve the quality of our lives, and help us to understand where humanity is been prior to the modern era. Just how immense is the study of human beings? Continue reading for a brief run-down of the numerous specialized areas of this important field.


Archaeologists gather information about humanity’s past by examining the clues left behind by the people of bygone eras. Excavation work and analysis are two of the most commonly-known and appreciated practices conducted within the field of archaeology.


Demography is the study of populations and the trends within those populations, including birth and death rates and the spread of disease. Researchers in this field of study will collect relevant data and compile their findings for other individuals and institutions to learn from.

Human Geography

This arm of the study of geography covers communities and cultures, particularly the way that they impact the world at large. One example of this is how different peoples in different areas impact the natural environment.

Environmental Study

Researchers who have familiarized themselves with humans’ relationships with the planet can – and do – assist in the creation of plans to better preserve the environment that’s being impacted.

Economic Management

This field of study concerns the way that goods and services are produced and exchanged within a population. Business studies, as a part of the ‘economic studies’ umbrella, closer analyzes the way that businesses conduct their work. Strategic management, employee relations, accounting and other areas of a business’ functionality fall under the purview of economic management.


Linguistics, or the study of language, has less to do with learning any particular language and more to do with understanding how the language itself “works.” This includes the evolution of language.

Political Science

Politics have always played a hefty role in how societies conduct and govern themselves, meaning that political science researchers have humanity’s past and present to analyze within this context.


This study involves the assessment of society, at an individual and more broadened level. Class, religion and social structures are commonly studied by sociologists, who often put the information that they obtain to use for social welfare.